Wiman Joseon–194 BC to 108 BC

As the school year winds down, we’re finally getting to a place in history where we’ll get to visit Korea history more often. I’m excited about that! Today we studied Wiman Joseon, which is a period in ancient Korean history between 194 BC and 108 BC. As with all of the ancient history of the peninsula, I’ve had to piece together the story and as usual lately, I’ve found a lot of information at Wikipedia.

In the 2nd century BC, the land we know today as the Korean peninsula was divided into to main states: Gojoseon and Jin. King Jun ruled over Gojoseon.

After the founding of the unified Han Dynasty in China in 206 BC, political upheaval ensued and many people from the former Yan State of China sought refuge in Gojoseon. Wiman, a Yan leader, was one of these refugees; he reportedly led more than 1000 followers to Gojoseon. The story says that he dressed in the style of Gojoseon, even wearing his hair in a topknot.

King Jun allowed Wiman to live in Gojoseon and even granted Wiman’s request to become a commander around 195 BC. He was ordered to fortify the country’s northwestern border. But instead, around 194 BC, Wiman overthrew the throne and claimed to be king of Gojoseon. King Jung fled south into the Jin state.

Wiman located the capital of his Gojoseon at Wanggeom-seong (the archeological evidence of the location is disputed; some say it’s near Pyongyang, while others say it was further north). Since the Han Dynasty in China wasn’t completely stable, the governor of Liaodong appointed Wiman as an outer subject somewhere around 192  or 191 BC. Using its superior military force, Wiman Joseon was able to extend its borders.

But the kingdom wasn’t to last. In 109 BC, Wiman’s grandson King Ugeo reigned over Wiman Joseon and a conflicted broke out when he refused to allow ambassadors from the Jin State (to the south) to use his land to reach China. When the dispute couldn’t be settled through negotiations, Emperor Wu of Han launched a two-front attack on Wiman Joseon–one by sea and one by land. Although the forces took heavy losses, the two forces merged on Wanggeoum and the capital fell in 108 BC.

Han took over the Wiman Joseon lands and established the Four Commanderies of Han in the western part of the former Gojoseon area. This led to several small states emerging in what is known as the Proto-Three Kingdoms Era (which will likely be our next lesson).

Wiman is the first Korean king who was written about in documents from the time period in which he ruled, thus his Korean state is the first one to be verified historically.

For an activity to accompany this lesson, I drew a map of the area noting the significant places, which our son colored, and I had him draw a picture of what he though Wiman looked like.

Sources: In addition to various Wikipedia sites, I gathered information for this post from “The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism” by Jaeun Kang. You can preview this book at via Google Books.

I also found information and maps at http://byeongjupark.wordpress.com/article/gojoseon-2zvfgrgyend5c-5/

And since the histories of China and Korea are linked, you might want to check out this changing map that shows the various dynasties in China.



Mumun Pottery Period, 1500-300 BC

I love doing history chronologically. It just makes so much sense. And while our curriculum does a good job of covering the expansion of people onto every continent, ancient Korean history isn’t included (as usual Asia is limited mostly to China and Japan). But one reason we homeschool is to include Korean history and language into our school day. So for Korean lessons I must research and put together my own lessons.

I’ll admit that given the busyness of this year, I haven’t done as much as I wanted to. But we have included a couple of lessons already about ancient Korea, and as we move forward there will be more since written history is more accessible.

So today’s post fits in where we are chronologically in history right now in the 500s BC. It is about the Mumun Pottery period in Korea. It stretched from 1500 BC to 300 BC, with the height of the age being between 850 BC and 550 BC.

This period saw the development of complex societies and an increasing reliance on agriculture. During this early period, each house mostly produced for the family.

Evidence of this period has been found in North Korea and the Liao River Basin in what is now China and includes large stone burial markers, pottery, and evidence of large settlements.

The Early Mumun period spanned from 1500 BC to 850 BC) and saw the shifting of the culture from a hunting and gathering society to one of a more settled nature. As with most ancient cultures, settlements were concentrated in river valleys. Evidence of these have been found along the Geum River in west-central Korea and the Middle Nam River Valley in south-central Korea. One of the largest Early Mumun settlements was called Eoeun (어은) was found in the Middle Nam River Valley.

These settlements were made up of long houses as evidenced in what is modern Cheonan City. The houses were rectangular in shape and had one or more hearths inside, some having as many as six hearths, indicating that multiple generations lived in these homes. The average settlement during this time period was small.

It was during the Early Mumun period that the following traditions began:   building large stone burial markers, the production of reddish pottery, and the use of polished groundstone daggers.

The Middle Mumun period (from 850-550 BC) is when the society began to do more farming. Evidence of this has been discovered at Daepyong,which was a large settlement with hundreds of pit houses and fields located in the Nam River valley near what is now Jinju. Korean archaeologists refer to this period as Songguk-ri (송국리 문화), and they have found evidence of the culture in regions of southeast Korea and as far south of Jeju Island and as far west as Japan.

During this period, smaller houses were the norm. While still pit houses, the houses could be square, circular or oval in shape and did not have interior hearths. Instead there was a central area on the floor equipped with an an oval work pit. It is believed these smaller houses indicate a change from large multiple generation families living together to smaller families of only parents and children living in the same house.

Larger settlements began to emerge during the Middle Muman period. Some had several hundred pit-houses making up the settlement. Also during this period, craft production and redistribution entered the economy. Items that were sold or exchanged include greenstone ornaments, bronze objects, and some kinds of red-burnished pottery.

The Late Mumun period (550-300 BC) saw increased conflict, fortified hilltop settlements, and a concentration of population in the southern coastal area. During this period, Mumun-like settlements appear in northern Japan.

Pit houses continued to be used but during this period they were sometimes surrounded by a large ring ditch, indicating conflict and the need to keep people out. The number of settlements decreased during this time period, possibly because of settlements being reorganized into a smaller number of larger settlements.

The Mumun period ends when iron is appears in the settlements.

All of the information for this post was taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumun_pottery_period. If you go there, you’ll find photos of pottery and links to sketches of what the housing looked like.

More information on this period in history can be found at: http://www.academia.edu/245929/Craft_Production_and_Social_Change_in_Mumun_Pottery_Period_Korea

Timeline of Korean History

I know that sometimes Wikipedia isn’t completely reliable as an encyclopedia. But I’ve been checking out the Timeline of Korean History they have and it seems to be fairly well documented. So I thought I would share it.

The link is: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Korean_history

It begins with the most ancient references or discoveries on the Korean peninsula and goes through 2012. What a great resource when someone (me!) is having to build their own Korean history curriculum for a first grader.

Here are another couple of resources for early Korean history:

Ohio State University has several pages on this site about Korean history. http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02korean.html

5,000 Years of Korean Martial Arts: The Heritage of the Hermit Kingdom Warriors by R. Barry Harmon (you can get a sneak peak by following this link to Google Books http://books.google.com/books?id=tZbVl-Cd-SgC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=korea+Yemak+and+Puyo&source=bl&ots=vhT7qYZTy3&sig=4hAylZ9MaaTB_ksSjGqeOYUZz2I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-shAUYDvA8TbyAHA8ICQCQ&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=korea%20Yemak%20and%20Puyo&f=false

Woorden KO App

Over the last several months I’ve build an impressive collection of Korean language learning apps on my iPhone. So over the next several posts I’ll be sharing them with you.

Right now the one I use the most is Woorden KO. This is no longer free (bummer!). If you are taking a class or working with an independent teacher, this app with be worth the purchase price.

It allows you to build flashcards on your phone. It’s been invaluable to me lately since our current Korean school teacher gives us a vocabulary test every week. Now I just put in the words and phrases into the app, and my flashcards are with me wherever I go.

I love the convenience of it and that certainly encourages me to study more.

KinderKalendars: A Daily Language Help

This is a cool product that I’ve just learned about from another adoptive mom who homeschools. They are Kinder Kalendars, which is a calendar that teaches basic words and phrases each day. And they have a Korean-English calendar.

Language included are: days of the week, months, colors, animals, numbers, and some basic phrases.

You can check them out at: http://kinderkal.com/home_main.html

What a great daily prompt to help a family learn Korean! Thanks for sharing, Jen!

Seolnal 2013

Tomorrow, Feb. 10, is Seolnal–the lunar new year. It’s one of the biggest celebrations in the Korean culture and is a day to honor family, observe traditions, eat rice cake soup, and receive New Year’s greetings.

I’ve blogged about the holiday before, but this year we’ve added a new twist. I’ve been trying to make all of our holidays less materialistic. For example, we parred down our Christmas gift giving this year because I felt our son was too focused on things. The same thought occurred to me with Seolnal.

Each Seolnal, children bow to their elders (saebae) and receive money (saebae ton). For the last several years, we’ve observed this tradition and our son has performed the bow and received money. But now with two (yes, I said two) Korean exchange students in our house, saebae ton was getting a little pricey. Couple that with my thought that our son was becoming too focused on money and things, and I decided we needed a new idea for saebae ton.

So I decided that some fun dollars were the answer and I found the perfect printable for it at LilBlueBoo.com (www.lilblueboo.com/2012/06/fun-dollar-coupons-a-free-printable.html). Instead of money, each child will receive a few fun dollars. Each of these dollars will entitled them to some special privilege. Here are some of the things I plan to use:

You choose our dinner
It’s game night–you choose the game
Choose the movie for family movie night
Chick-flick night for the girls
A day of speaking Korean without nagging (for our student who isn’t normally allowed to speak English)
Go to bed 30 minutes late
Extra computer time
A day with no jobs

Hopefully it’s a fun way to still observe a Korean tradition but without a family twist on it. I’m not saying we’ll always do saebae on this way but I think for this year it’s a good compromise.

Korable Blocks for Language Learning

IMG_2668Given that our whole family is now learning the Korean language, I’m always looking for language helps. And since my son is multi-sensory learner, the more hands-on the language help is the better. So I was very excited when I stumbled across Korable Blocks (http://korableblock.bigcartel.com/) on Pinterest.

I was even more excited when Korable agreed to send me a review set of the blocks for me to share with you. The set that I’m reviewing includes the four blocks, a storage tray, a book of words, and a brochure about using the blocks. The book includes 120 words that you can build using the blocks, including animals, numbers, directions, and more.

While the idea is simple, I have to say I think these blocks are really cool! There are so many ways to use them that several levels of language learners can benefit from the blocks.

True beginners, like my husband, can role the blocks like dice and practice saying the sound of the character that they rolled. The font used for the Korean characters is modern, which is also good for my husband who struggles with confusing some of the characters when they are written this way.

Then for our son, who is just learning to read in Korean, they are great because he can build words using the book and practice reading them. Building the words helps make a solid connection between the Korean characters and their sounds.

For me, a more intermediate beginner, I can quiz myself by trying to build as many words as I can with the blocks.

With the one product, you can do alphabet drills, reading drills, speed drills, and much more. Since we homeschool, I see us getting a lot of use out of these Korable Blocks. The product is well-made and, I believe, will stand up to use.

So if you’re looking for a fun way to practice Korean, check them out. In addition to this set, their other products include a set of just the four blocks (having two sets of blocks would enable you to build many more Korean words) and a matching game with words in Korean and English.